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               THE QUANTUM LEAP FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS LIST
                                       
Other Quick Reference Documents:
	Information Roadmap
	Primer
	Spoiler FAQL
   	Episode Guide

     _________________________________________________________________
   

Created by: Quantum Buc (buc@world.std.com) and
            Debbie Brown (dmb7229@ultb.isc.rit.edu)

With assistance from: Vicky Sailer (admin@mrmarx.uu.net)
                      Lisa (Vicky's officemate)
                      Sally Smith (sallylb@netcom.com)
                      Audrey Urling (amu@dukee.egr.duke.edu)
                          and many other members of the QL/usenet community
                      Occasional references from _Harry and Wally's
                          Favorite TV Shows_, H. Castleman & W. J. Podrazik,
                          Prentice Hall Press, New York, 1989

Updated by:  Tracy Finifter (finifter@gandalf.rutgers.edu),
             Cheryl Bellucci (ac961@dayton.wright.edu),
             and Robin C. Kwong (rkwong@engin.umich.edu)
Based on Previous Revision by:  Sally "Lucky Bitch" Smith

Last Revision Date:  July 3, 1995
Reply to:  Robin C. Kwong (rkwong@engin.umich.edu)
Changes in This Version: addition of #43; minor corrections

   
   
   This is a reference file that is meant to answer those questions most
   frequently asked about the US television program, Quantum Leap. It
   also attempts to catalog the information viewers have been able to
   glean from individual stories and other, official and non-official
   sources. Permission is granted to distribute this file UNMODIFIED to
   other networks and BBSs. Rights to modifications to this file is
   reserved by the updater(s).
   
   Note: you may freely copy and distribute this guide for personal use
   provided that it be distributed in its entirety, with all original
   author and copyright information intact. Any sales of this document or
   use of it in a for-profit project are expressly forbidden, without the
   specific consent of the authors.
     _________________________________________________________________
   
   Spoiler FAQL
   
   Another FAQL exists, created specifically to deal with those questions
   that involve detailed spoilers of various episodes. Questions that are
   answered here in the regular FAQL and which are elaborated upon in the
   other will include a note to check the SP for further details. The SP
   also contains additional questions.
     _________________________________________________________________
   
   Credit: I have attempted to give proper credit to those contributing
   to text in this FAQL. Initially, I did not want to credit my own text,
   but then discovered there was no other feasible way to distinguish 
   the new text from the original and to give proper credit to past FAQL
   keepers. All uncredited text belongs to these past keepers. By
   keeping the sources of information documented, later confusion/
   complications can...theoretically...be avoided. Minor revisions to 
   original text also remain uncredited for practicality's sake.
   
   Credits are given in [square brackets] following individual
   paragraphs, since often there was more than one contributor to a
   question.
     _________________________________________________________________
   
Table of contents:


    Y'Know, Maybe This Quantum Leaping Isn't Such A Bad Deal After All:

    1. Who controls the leaps?
    2. When Sam looks at himself, what does he see?
    3. Can Sam die during a leap?
    4. Why could Sam see when he "replaced" a blind man? Would he be able
       to hear as a deaf person? In other words, is it Sam's mind that's
       leaping, or his body?
    5. What does the leapee remember about his experience after he
       returns?
    6. There is no number 6.
    7. Can anyone see Sam as Sam, rather than as the leapee? Can anyone
       other than Sam see Al?
    8. Why can't Sam leap back beyond his own lifetime? (or, why can't he
       leap into the far past)?
    9. What would happen if Sam failed to do what he was there to do?
   10. How is it that when Sam leaps into a leapee who is shorter/smaller
       than he is, people around him don't notice a difference in size?
   11. Has Sam ever leapt outside the United States? Into foreign
       nationals?
   12. Why couldn't Sam leap into the future (post-90's)?
   13. Who are the "evil leapers"?
   14. How much time passes between leaps?
   15. Does time pass differently at PQL than it does for Sam?
       

    Meanwhile, Back at the Project:

   16. When is Al's "present"? Or rather, in what year did Sam start
       leaping?
   17. When Al looks at Sam, what does he see?
   18. Who is in the "Waiting Room"? What does it look like?
   19. What is the Imaging Chamber?
   20. Can anyone else at the project go into the Imaging Chamber and see
       Sam?
   21. How does Ziggy know so much about people's lives in the past?
   22. Who is this "Gooshie" that Al keeps talking to?
   23. If Al is a hologram, why does he cast shadows?
   24. Since Al is a hologram, we always see the neat effects of cars
       driving right through him, etc, so how can he sit in the car and
       travel within it too?
   25. Why is Ziggy sometimes referred to as "he" and at other times
       "she"?
   26. How is the Head Programmer's name spelled? What about Donna's last
       name?
       

    And In Our Own Universe:

   27. Who is this Sally Smith person and why does she know so much about
       the behind the scenes goings-on of Belisarius Productions? Why is
       she called "Lucky Bitch"?
   28. What about other inconsistencies that I've noticed in QL?
   29. What are "Leapheads"?
   30. So what's the story with that episode titled "The B**giem*n" and
       why do Leapers refuse to mention it by name?
   31. I remember watching a time travel show in the 60's, Time Tunnel.
       Anyone else remember it?
   32. Isn't Quantum Leap just like that other time travel show,
       Voyagers?
   33. Is Scott Bakula really as nice as he seems to be?
   34. Does Scott Bakula do his own singing on the show?
   35. What are these abbreviations you people keep using?
   36. What's the significance of the word "height"?
   37. What members of the QL staff and crew have appeared in the show?
   38. Wasn't the guy who played Al the bartender in the last episode the
       same actor who played Weird Ernie in the first episode?
   39. What's the latest information on Scott, Dean, and QL?
   40. Are there Quantum Leap conventions?
   41. Who do I write to get a Quantum Leap movie? And how can I write to
       the cast and crew now?
   42. How long did QL originally run?
   43.  Is there really an Elk Ridge, Indiana?
       
   
     _________________________________________________________________
   
   
   
  1. WHO CONTROLS THE LEAPS?
  
   Nobody knows. Sam and Al know that it's not Ziggy or anyone at
   Project Quantum Leap. Al told Sam in the pilot that Sam's leaps were
   out of the project's control, so Sam and Al hypothetize that it's Him
   who is controlling things.
   
   In the series finale, we get an ambiguous glimpse of the supposed
   controller, but the exact nature of this controller (and in fact of
   this entire episode) is still under heavy debate. (see SP#2) [Robin C.
   Kwong] 
   
  2. WHEN SAM LOOKS AT HIMSELF, WHAT DOES HE SEE?
  
   He sees himself, Sam Beckett - unless he looks into a mirror. Then he
   sees the leapee. 
   
  3. CAN SAM DIE DURING A LEAP?
  
   According to Don Bellisario, yes he can. 
   
  4. WHY COULD SAM SEE WHEN HE "REPLACED" A BLIND MAN? WOULD HE BE ABLE TO
  HEAR AS A DEAF PERSON? IN OTHER WORDS, IS IT SAM'S MIND THAT'S LEAPING, OR
  HIS BODY?
  
   Sam is physically leaping through time, his mass being exchanged with
   that of the leapee. Sam, not sharing the handicap, will not exhibit
   it. Sam's entire body and soul trades places with the leapee, although
   the physical aura stays around.
   
   To quote The Source Himself (Don Bellisario):
   
   "...when Sam leaps in and bounces somebody out, I like to think of it
   this way: ... if that person was hit by a car and they broke their leg
   and hit the street and then Sam leaped in, Sam would not have a broken
   leg. But if Sam leaped in and was crossing the street and was hit by
   the car, then Sam would have the broken leg."
   
   In other words:
   
   He does not share handicaps or injuries suffered by the leapee before
   his leap in, but will sustain injuries suffered while he is there.
   
   The fact that it is Sam's entire body that is leaping is supported by
   a great number of episodes: "The Wrong Stuff," "Nowhere to Run,"
   "Blind Faith," "Runaway," "Trilogy part 3," "Pool Hall Blues," "The
   Color of Truth" (Jesse Tyler was revealed to suffer from rheumatism in
   "Shock Theater," which Sam gave no indication of being affected by in
   this ep), and probably any episode in which he is a woman and does
   things beyond her normal physical strength. (Yes, this even includes
   "8 1/2 Months" (see SP#8).) This is also supported by the fact that
   Sam sees himself unless he looks in a mirror. [Kwong]
   
   Also, it is stated that Sam and Al are linked via their mesons and
   neurons, which are physical entities. If Sam does not leap physically,
   then this link would be lost. [Kwong]
   
   The fact that certain individuals--including himself--can see Sam
   indicates that there is something behind the aura for them to see.
   [Kwong]
   
   The explanation for why Sam seems to be unaffected by the size
   difference between him and the leapee is theorized in question 14.
   There is *no* clear evidence given in any of the episodes to support
   the theory that Sam's mind is leaping. [Kwong]
   
   See also SP#7. 
   
  5. WHAT DOES THE LEAPEE REMEMBER ABOUT HIS EXPERIENCE AFTER HE RETURNS?
  
   This is also not known. The only time we've seen this occur was in
   the episode "Double Identity," where Sam leaped to replace another
   body and the original host returned. He APPEARED to have no memory of
   anything after he was leaped into. It has been stated that the leapee,
   while in Sam's body back in the Waiting Room, has a 'swiss-cheesed'
   memory, much like Sam received upon his initial leap. Because of the
   ultramodern hospital-like atmosphere of the waiting room, many of the
   leapees believe they have been abducted by aliens. Deborah Pratt says
   that as the leapees return, they pick up some of Sam's memories of
   what happened, but they believe the events happened to them.
   
   It would probably also wreak havoc for the top-secret nature of PQL of
   all the leapees remembered enough facts for them to compare notes. Not
   to mention the possible serious repercussions of "The Leap Home part
   1" and "A Leap for Lisa." [Kwong]
   
   Don Bellisario believes a lot of these people ended up writing books
   about UFOs. :-) [Finifter] 
   
  6. THERE IS NO NUMBER 6.
  
   [This is a net.Leapers "in joke" that started on Monty Python's
   Flying Circus.] 
   
  7. CAN ANYONE SEE SAM AS SAM, RATHER THAN AS THE LEAPEE? CAN ANYONE OTHER
  THAN SAM SEE AL?
  
   Small children, the "mentally absent", animals and people near death
   can see him [And pretty blondes with very low IQs, if Dean Stockwell
   got his way :-)]. Al has explained that children and animals see
   things as they really are because they exist in a natural alpha state.
   Also, if a person's brainwaves were sufficiently in tune with Sam's,
   that person would be able to see and hear Al too. 
   
  8. WHY CAN'T SAM LEAP BACK BEYOND HIS OWN LIFETIME? (OR, WHY CAN'T HE LEAP
  INTO THE FAR PAST?)
  
   This is all part of Sam Beckett's String Theory. A person's lifetime
   is like a string - one end of the string is one's birth, the other
   end, one's death. Tie the ends together and ball up the string, and
   all the days of one's life touch all the other days of one's life. If
   one can loose one's self from the string, one can Quantum Leap from
   one day to the any other. On one occasion (so far), Sam was able to
   leap back to a time before the date of his birth due to an accident
   that occurred during a leap out in the middle of a thunderstorm. Al
   and Sam leaped together and wound up trading places, Al in the past,
   Sam in the future. This "simo-leap" caused an exchange of subatomic
   matter between Al and Sam allowing Sam to leap back into Al in the
   year 1945. It isn't known at this time if this exchange of matter will
   be permanent (therefore allowing Sam to leap even further back) or if
   it was cleared up when Sam leaped back.
   
   As for those cases where Sam leaps before his own birth ("Play It
   Again, Seymour," "The Americanization of Machiko"), it is possible
   that Sam's lifetime is not defined by his birth but by his conception,
   since these dates are within 9 months of his birth. However, the DITTC
   seems to apply most appropriately here. [Kwong]
   
   The "within your own lifetime" principle is also broken in "Leap
   Between the States," where it is theorized that the genetic similarity
   between Sam and the leapee enables him to leap very far before his own
   birth. [Kwong] 
   
  9. WHAT WOULD HAPPEN IF SAM FAILED TO DO WHAT HE WAS THERE TO DO?
  
   Again, nobody knows. One theory that we have was that he would be
   trapped in the past forever, replacing the host. This, however, is
   doubtful. Another theory that we have had was that he would leap into
   another's life to attempt again to fix "that which has gone wrong".
   
   Things seem to change a little at the end of the fourth season when
   Sam states that success is not required for a leap-out, which seems to
   violate the precedent set by previous episodes, notably "Genesis." At
   any rate, these statements only reflect the fact that PQL can merely
   *theorize* on the leaping process. It is possible that this question
   will not be answered satisfactorily simply because GTF will not leap
   Sam into situations which he cannot handle. (see SP#5) [Kwong] 
   
  10. HOW IS IT THAT WHEN SAM LEAPS INTO A LEAPEE WHO IS SHORTER/SMALLER THAN
  HE IS, PEOPLE AROUND HIM DON'T NOTICE A DIFFERENCE IN SIZE?
  
   I belive it is a question of topology. I'm not very good at it, but
   consider the following argument. The QL maps everything from a
   different time into a frame of reference relative to Sam. (And vice
   versa for the host.) Sam doesn't see what really happens, but rather
   what happens relative to his host. [Doug van der Veen]
   
   It's all a matter of relativity. Consider a spaceship 10 meters long.
   Send it off at 99.4% of the speed of light and it will seem to be only
   1 meter long to anyone still on earth, while still seeming like 10 to
   those on board. Gravity can do the same sort of thing; put an object
   deep into a gravity well and it will seem shorter. The point is the
   ship is in a different 'reference frame' than the earth, and the
   object in the well is in a different frame then the observer floating
   outside it, and things like length (also duration) are not the same
   across reference frames. [Larne Pekowsky]
   
   So here's the theory: when Sam leaps his whole body leaps (explaining
   things like "Blind Faith"), but it is mapped into a different
   reference frame. If you look through a warped piece of glass, things
   seem to be a different size and shape. The same thing happens with a
   warped region of space (cf. "Gravitational Lenses.") When Sam leaps
   the space containing him is warped in such a way that not just length,
   but all physical properties are altered. And, of course, the only
   person in Sam's reference frame is Sam, so when he looks at himself he
   sees what he has always seen, but when he looks in a mirror the
   photons have passed between frames, and so he sees the leapee.
   [Pekowsky]
   
   To answer the original question, when Sam, 6ft, has leaped into
   someone 5ft7 and is talking to someone, they look at the leapee's
   eyes, he sees them looking at his eyes, and likewise he looks down,
   but the person he's talking to sees the leapee looking straight. Which
   is really right? Neither, or both! It's the same as asking 'how long
   is the spaceship really.' The answer is completely dependent on what
   frame you're in because certain physical properties have no absolute
   existence. [Pekowsky]
   
   As for how this ties into superstrings - current thought is that
   strings don't just define particles, but also in some sense define
   space and time themselves (ref: "Superstrings: A Theory of
   Everything?" edited by PCW Davies). When Sam leaps he takes the
   strings comprising his body and 'soul,' into a region of space made up
   of the strings of the person he's replacing. [Pekowsky] 
   
  11. HAS SAM EVER LEAPT OUTSIDE THE UNITED STATES? INTO FOREIGN NATIONALS?
  
   Sam has leapt outside the United States a total of 7 times:
     * "The Leap Home II - Vietnam": The Mekong Delta, South Viet Nam
     * "Ghost Ship": Over the Bermuda Triangle, flying to Bermuda
     * "The Curse of Ptah Hotep": Egypt
     * "Lee Harvey Oswald": Japan and Moscow, U.S.S.R.
     * "The Leaping of the Shrew": The Aegean Sea
     * "Blood Moon": England, U.K.
       
   [Finifter] 
   
  12. I READ THE QL PRIMER AND I UNDERSTAND THE CONCEPT OF TIME STRINGS WITH
  THE PARTS OF THE STRING TOUCHING OTHER TIMES, AND HOW THE RULE IS THAT SAM
  CAN ONLY LEAP TO TIMES THAT OCCUR DURING HIS OWN LIFE-TIME. MY QUESTION IS,
  WHY CAN'T SAM LEAP INTO THE FUTURE? BY THE FUTURE, I MEAN THAT PERIOD OF
  TIME BETWEEN THE FIRST LEAP AND SAM'S DEATH.
  
   Sam's leaping into post-'90s time would seem to fit within the
   definition of "his own lifetime," since one's birth as well as death
   would constitute one's entire lifetime. This was stated as much in
   "Genesis" ("One end of this string represents your birth; the other
   end, your death. You tie the ends together, and your life is a loop.
   Ball the loop...and the days of your life touch each other out of
   sequence. Therefore, leaping from one point in the string to
   another--" "Would move you back and forth within your own lifetime.").
   [Kwong]
   
   With this in mind, then, "future" leaps would seem to be possible.
   However, since now the m.o. of the Project has changed slightly due to
   the interference of GTFWhoever, it just might not be practical. That
   is, Sam leaps in order to right some wrong, often using his knowledge
   of the future to solve the problem -- or at the very least, the fact
   that he's from the future enables him to recognize the fact that there
   *exists* a problem at all (preventing something from happening that
   the original host didn't see coming up the first time around). In a
   "future" leap, Ziggy would be useless in terms of obtaining data, Al
   would be reduced to being only able to offer moral support or an extra
   pair of eyes, and Sam would be just as clueless about the situation as
   the original leapee was (and probably even more so). The sheer
   impracticality of these conditions would then cut down quite a bit the
   probability of a "future" leap. [Kwong]
   
   Then again, if Sam does do a "future" leap, would that give away the
   fact that he's not going to die in any other leap before the Project's
   "real time" reaches that date? [Kwong] 
   
  13. WHO ARE THE "EVIL LEAPERS"?
  
   We first see Alia and Zoey in the fifth-season episode "Deliver Us
   From Evil" and later in "Return" and "Revenge." Apparently they have a
   means of leaping which contains notable parallels to PQL--including a
   holographic chamber, handlink, holding area, and a controlling
   computer named Lothos--and in fact seem to act as something of a
   counterpart. Beyond the fact that they clearly do not have Sam's good
   intentions where leaps are concerned, not much more is known about
   them. (See also SP#2.) [Kwong]
   
   There's been a lot of discussion on the net from time to time
   regarding this topic, and it is some people's opinion that PEQL
   (Project Evil Quantum Leap) is run by Satan himself. [Finifter] 
   
  14. HOW MUCH TIME PASSES BETWEEN LEAPS?
  
   Time between the leaps is instantaneous for Sam. For those back at
   PQL, the gap seems to vary. We've heard mention of gaps as long as six
   days, and were even once treated to the sight of an instantaneous leap
   in from the point-of-view of the Waiting Room. It would appear that
   the lengths of the between-leap gaps for the PQL staff are random.
   [Kwong] 
   
  15. DOES TIME PASS DIFFERENTLY AT PQL THAN IT DOES FOR SAM?
  
   We've never seen an indication that it does. At most, there is a time
   difference resulting from, say, Sam leaping into Smallville at 9am
   while back at the Project it's 11:30pm...the kind of difference one
   would get when trying to place a long-distance call to someone in
   another time zone. There is no indication that an hour's length for
   Sam is not the same as an hour's length for the PQL staff. [Kwong]
   
   To state it more specifically, once Sam leaps in and PQL locates him,
   his "clock" and the Project's "clock" become locked in synch. As in
   the Smallville example above, if Al steps into the Chamber at 11:45pm
   (PQL time), he will only be able to contact Sam at 9:15am (Smallville
   time). Note that the Chamber becomes useless unless there is a leaper
   to focus on. [Kwong] 
   
  16.WHEN IS AL'S "PRESENT"? OR RATHER, IN WHAT YEAR DID SAM START LEAPING?
  
   Through various little hints and clues, the date of Sam's first leap
   has been determined to be 1995 (seven years after our present, since
   Quantum Leap premiered in the spring of 1989). This date was confirmed
   in the fifth season episode, "Killin' Time." Al's "present" tended to
   jump around a bit during the course of the series. Through arithmetic
   or direct statements, it was 1997 in the third season finale, then
   1999 for the fourth season opener. Then in the fifth season opener,
   the date was given as a few months *before* the fourth season opener,
   with references to events from the fourth season. [Finifter]
   
   From direct statements in one episode, we know the building of the
   Project was begun in 1989. [Kwong] 
   
  17. WHEN AL LOOKS AT SAM, WHAT DOES HE SEE?
  
   Al sees the leapee, initially. In the episode entitled "What Price,
   Gloria", Al was out of control at seeing Sam as the gorgeous
   secretary. Al probably recognizes Sam because they are linked through
   their brainwave transmissions, which is what is used by the project to
   locate Sam in time.
   
   This then appears to change through the seasons. Later episodes begin
   to hint that Al sees Sam as Sam. By the fifth season, this is stated
   explicitly to be the case. A possible theory is that, after the whole
   mess in "What Price Gloria," Al had Gooshie re-configure the IC to
   show him Sam's image only. [Kwong] 
   
  18. WHO IS IN THE "WAITING ROOM"? WHAT DOES IT LOOK LIKE?
  
   The leapee. To everyone at the Project (with the possible exception
   of Al (see #2), the leapee looks like Sam. The waiting room has been
   described by Don Bellisario as being a sterile, hospital-like room
   where the leapee is examined by the Project's medical staff. We've
   seen it a few times and it's big and blue, and located at the end of
   an isolated ocrridor. Once we got to see (and HEAR) the leapee when
   she entered the imaging chamber with Al, and she looked to us like the
   image Sam saw in the mirror. This is probably due to the same
   mechanism that allows us to see Sam as Sam [Bellisario's rules :)].
   
   The leapee is occupying Sam's aura, not his body (see #8). The
   audience sees the leapee in the WR. [Kwong] 
   
  19. WHAT IS THE IMAGING CHAMBER?
  
   This is the only place where Al can go to talk to Sam. Its
   construction allows a holographic image of Al to be generated for
   transmission into Sam's optic and otic neurons in the past, and for
   Sam and his surrounding images to be projected onto Al's neurons.
   Speculation (and a quote from Don) has it that this is a very large
   and cavernous room judging from the amount of walking Al can do
   without bumping into walls and the sound of the door as it slides open
   and closed. We've seen it once, and it is large and blue, similar to
   the Waiting Room. [Finifter] Since Al is a hologram, the fact that he
   seems to be able to walk up and down stairs in several episodes is
   probably a script glitch. [Kwong] 
   
  20. CAN ANYONE ELSE AT THE PROJECT GO INTO THE IMAGING CHAMBER AND SEE SAM?
  
   Only when Al is touching an object will it be visible to Sam (and
   us). In more than one episode, Al brought an object into the Imaging
   Chamber for Sam to see (this is beyond Al's clothing, cigar and
   handlink). Skin to skin contact must be needed for another person to
   be seen in the Imaging Chamber. Dr. Beeks, by holding Al's hand was
   seen by Sam [and us :)]. In one other episode (Killin' Time), a quick
   jury-rigging job by Ziggy enabled Gooshie (see question 19) to contact
   Sam via the hologram/brain-wave process, but the image broke up a lot.
   (see SP#4, SP#13) 
   
  21. HOW DOES ZIGGY KNOW SO MUCH ABOUT PEOPLE'S LIVES IN THE PAST?
  
   Ziggy is hooked up to every major database of the late '90s. It's
   amazing, when you think about it, just how much is REALLY known about
   you that is stored on computers. 
   
  22. WHO IS THIS "GOOSHIE" THAT AL KEEPS TALKING TO?
  
   Gooshie is Ziggy's programmer, a short guy with bad breath. We used
   to see him very briefly in profile wearing a headset in the opening
   title sequence as Sam is leaping out and in the pilot and the episodes
   "The Leap Back," "Killin' Time," and "Mirror Image." He was played by
   the late Dennis Wolfberg. 
   
  23. IF AL IS A HOLOGRAM, WHY DOES HE CAST SHADOWS?
  
   The shadows are holograms, too, and are generated and projected by
   Ziggy as part of the process, of course. [Sally Smith]
   
   Seriously, while Al may not cast shadows, Dean certainly does
   (especially since-- as QL's director of photography Michael Watkins,
   ASC once put it-- "Dean likes to talk with his hands so much that he's
   a pretty active shadow anyway."). It's simply physically impossible to
   eliminate them all. Also, there are times when having Al not cast a
   shadow would actually make him look fake--like a pasted-on cut out
   effect instead of a real person. [Sally Smith]
   
   Any instances of Al's reflection appearing on objects, or things
   reflecting off of Al's outfits, probably fall under the same category.
   [Kwong] 
   
  24. SINCE AL IS A HOLOGRAM, WE ALWAYS SEE THE NEAT EFFECTS OF CARS DRIVING
  RIGHT THROUGH HIM, ETC, SO HOW CAN HE SIT IN THE CAR AND TRAVEL WITHIN IT
  TOO?
  
   Well, when Al appears to be riding in the car, what's actually
   happening is that he's merely placed his image within the car and set
   it (his image) to track along with Sam's traveling. This same
   technique also allows him to track alongside the outside of moving
   vehicles as well. I'd assume that he's standing the entire time he's
   "riding," which also accounts for why he often seems to be facing a
   different direction than one normally would while riding in a vehicle
   (i.e. straight ahead). [Kwong] 
   
  25. WHY IS ZIGGY SOMETIMES REFERRED TO AS "HE" AND AT OTHER TIMES "SHE"?
  
   What follows is a segment of an interview with Donald Bellisario that
   describes why and when Ziggy moved from being a 'he' to a 'she'. The
   transcript has been moved around a bit so that it makes sense in this
   context.
   
   Int stands for Interviewer speaking, and Don for Donald.
   
   Int: I think I've caught you in one error.
   
   Don: What's that?
   
   Int: Ziggy. Ziggy was referred to as a male, until the "Leap Back"
   when Ziggy has a female voice.
   
   Don: Yeah, Ziggy was referred to as a male through every show. Heh,
   heh, heh. Yeah. But Ziggy turns out to be a she. It's not an error. We
   just decided to make Ziggy a female. I mean, it wasn't like, "Oh God,
   we didn't think of that!" We thought of that first thing, right off
   the bat, and said, "Oh, who cares?"
   
   If you want me to PCR [see below] that one, I'll tell you that Sam
   didn't remember that Ziggy was a female until he came back, and Al,
   not wanting to spoil anything for him or throw more of a load onto him
   that he already had, just rode along with it. How's that?
   
   [Another part of the same interview]
   
   Don: ...Sometimes you get things you want to do creatively and you
   don't have the reason for them. It's what I call PCR.
   
   Int: Meaning?
   
   Don: Post-Creative Rationalization. Heh-heh. It really is. "Why does
   it happen? Why?" Uhhhhhhhh, because, because - he can only leap within
   his own lifetime! [Referring to an earlier question]
   
   And then, out of that came my string theory about how it all works.
   
   So it was all stuff I knew I wanted to do. When you create something,
   and people ask you how it works, to justify it, you go back and figure
   it all out. And you PCR.
   
   There you go! So, Ziggy changed sex in the Leap Back simply because
   Don thought it would be a good idea! You can find the above transcript
   in the "Quantum Leap Book" (ISBN 1-85283-866-3). [above answer
   supplied by R. D. Gregson]
   
   There seems to be a very neat order of transition when it comes to
   Ziggy's various sex changes. Before the opening of the fourth season,
   Ziggy was always referred to, and assumed to be, a male. Then in the
   fourth season opener, we learned Ziggy had a female voice, but was
   still referred to as "he" throughout the season. In the fourth season
   finale, Sam tells St. John that "Al called her Ziggy," and the
   reference was always female from that point on. [Finifter] 
   
  26. HOW IS THE HEAD PROGRAMMER'S NAME SPELLED? WHAT ABOUT DONNA'S LAST NAME?
  
   Dennis Wolfberg's character is spelled "Gooshie" in "Genesis," and
   "Gushie" in "The Leap Back" (all other appearances list Dennis in the
   beginning credits, rather than by character name). This was probably
   due to an oversight. The official spelling is not known. [Kwong]
   
   The official spelling of Donna's last name *may* possible be gleaned
   from closed-captioning or a copy of the script. Does anyone have the
   relevant episodes handy? The Chunovic book spells it "Eleese," but
   keep in mind that the validity of the book's contents are suspect.
   [Kwong] 
   
  27. WHO IS THIS SALLY SMITH PERSON AND WHY DOES SHE KNOW SO MUCH ABOUT THE
  BEHIND THE SCENES GOINGS-ON OF BELISARIUS PRODUCTIONS? WHY IS SHE CALLED
  "LUCKY BITCH"?
  
   Hey, that's TWO questions! Sally Smith is our own "Set Elf",
   otherwise known to the less fortunate of us as the "Lucky Bitch" who
   resides somewhere in the Bay Area of California. Through some kind of
   divine providence, she has been granted the blessing of frequent
   visits to the set of Quantum Leap where she communes with the shining
   lights of Leapdom and imparts her learnings unto the less fortunate of
   us on the net (this is where the "Lucky Bitch" comes from). This
   blessing comes with a price however, in the form of air fare, gasoline
   and phone bills that when combined, resemble the national debt. This
   price she pays gladly so that she may share her visits and info with
   us both on the net and formerly in her mailing list. Unfortunately for
   all of us, the frequency of her visits have been greatly reduced due
   to a new studio policy that restricts visits to the sets in their
   domain. [!@#$%^& legal nozzles. Sally Smith] 
   
  28. WHAT ABOUT OTHER INCONSISTENCIES THAT I'VE NOTICED IN QL?
  
   "Don't investigate this too closely." --Don Bellisario, 3/17/90 
   
  29. WHAT ARE "LEAPHEADS"?
  
   There is no such creature as a Leaphead. This is a word coined by a
   NBC employee referring to a Leaper, which is a Quantum Leap fan.
   "Leaper" is the preferred term, used by the fans themselves and the
   cast and crew of Quantum Leap when speaking about the fans. The
   prevailing attitude is, "if 'Leaper' is good enough for Don Bellisario
   and company, it's good enough for us". 
   
  30. SO WHAT'S THE STORY WITH THAT EPISODE TITLED "THE B**GIEM*N" AND WHY DO
  LEAPERS REFUSE TO MENTION IT BY NAME?
  
   [Episode title edited for net.safety] This episode first aired near
   Halloween 1990, and from the first time it aired, weird events have
   been associated with this episode. As an example, this episode seems
   to have the highest incidence of VCR/cable/local station failure than
   any other episode aired. There have been numerous reports of VCRs
   cutting out during the taping of this episode, local stations and
   cable companies dropping their signal. Even mentioning it by name is
   hazardous, as one net.Leaper can attest. This hapless individual (who
   knew better) was bandying about the name of this episode. He lost his
   job AND his net.access. Its mention has been known to cause power
   failures and auto breakdowns, so it's best to just refer to it as "The
   Halloween Episode". Leapers everywhere will know of what you speak. By
   the way, cameras and recording equipment also tend to act strangely
   around Chris Ruppenthal, the writer of this episode. Since it aired,
   his nickname has been "Ruppenboogie". He _is_ kind enough not to say
   the title of the episode around the fans, though director Joe
   Napolitano does. Mention of all this merely causes Chris to laugh
   evilly.
   
   As long as we're on the subject of Chris, Joe, and weirdness, let's
   note that the episode "The Curse of Pt*h-H*tep" appears to cause
   earthquakes in Southern California -- the large quakes of Apr. and
   June 1992 coincided with the two showings of this episode. Pretty
   scary, huh, kids? 
   
  31. I REMEMBER WATCHING A TIME TRAVEL SHOW IN THE 60'S, TIME TUNNEL. ANYONE
  ELSE REMEMBER IT?
  
   Ah yes, Irwin Allen's Time Tunnel. This was a show about a secret
   government funded time travel experiment in which a young researcher
   sends himself back in time in an effort to prevent the project's
   funding from being cut. This, the two men travelling through time, and
   the efforts to retrieve them are the only things this show has in
   common with Quantum Leap (which only has ONE man travelling through
   time, his companion is firmly rooted in the future, but I digress). In
   the Time Tunnel, time travellers Anthony Newman and Doug Phillips
   unfailingly arrived at historical events and desperately tried to
   influence events based on their knowledge of the outcome. They always
   failed. This is a show where the time travellers would find themselves
   at the Roman coliseum one week, and in Napoleon's army the next, THEN
   tripping to the bombing of Pearl Harbor. It is drastic time changes
   like this that Don Bellisario wanted to avoid when he imposed the
   'within his own lifetime' rule. He felt the huge differences in time
   settings were distracting and unrealistic. :-) 
   
  32. ISN'T QUANTUM LEAP JUST LIKE THAT OTHER TIME TRAVEL SHOW, VOYAGERS?
  
   Phineas Bogg with the assistance of companion Jeffrey Jones are time
   travellers who find themselves trying to fix history, or to 'put
   things right' when 'people become displaced in time and find
   themselves a half-step away from a totally different destiny' [Harry
   and Wally]. In one episode, Franklin D. Roosevelt became a movie
   director and it was up to Phineas and Jeffrey to set him on the right
   course to the presidency of the United States. This is another show
   that would find its heroes travelling to far-flung places and times, a
   plot device that Don Bellisario wanted to avoid. 
   
  33. IS SCOTT BAKULA REALLY AS NICE AS HE SEEMS TO BE?
  
   Yes, yes a thousand times yes. A perfect example of just how nice,
   patient, hardworking and DECENT this man is is his appearance at the
   QL screening for the fans in LA back on February 25, 1991. He had put
   in a hard day on the set working on the episode "Last Dance Before an
   Execution", a very emotionally intense, exhausting episode when he had
   to appear at the screening to answer questions (with the BGU, Deborah
   Pratt and Dean) and to meet the fans. He was pleasant and open with
   the fans, even joking with people and accepting small gifts and hugs
   with aplomb. Afterward, he was mobbed by (literally!) hundreds of
   mostly female fans who requested his autograph and their picture taken
   with him. He spoke to each person and smiled for the cameras. He is
   truly a sweet, gracious person, traits which are shared by the rest of
   the people associated with this production.
   
   Any further elaborations can be filled in by FAQ # 27, the LB herself.
   :)
   
   [Why, thank you, Debbie...] Another example is the UCLA screening of
   11/25/90. Scott had been to New York City and back that weekend
   (appearing in the Macy's parade), had put in a long day at work and
   was in a great deal of pain from an injured ankle. But he walked out
   on stage and answered questions like he hadn't a care in the world and
   afterwards signed autographs until co-executive producer Michael
   Zinberg literally picked him up off the floor and took him away,
   telling him he had to go to work the next day. Then there was the
   convention...well, you get the idea. [Sally Smith] 
   
  34. DOES SCOTT BAKULA DO HIS OWN SINGING ON THE SHOW?
  
   You betcha. Scott is an accomplished singer (1988 Tony nomination for
   "Romance/Romance"), pianist (see "Blind Faith"), songwriter (he wrote
   the lyrics to the song "Somewhere in the Night" from "Piano Man"),
   dancer, and all-around athlete. Let's put it this way -- if you think
   Scott's doing it (and it's not wildly dangerous) -- it's him. 
   
  35. WHAT ARE THESE ABBREVIATIONS YOU PEOPLE KEEP USING?
  
   Whoops, sorry! GTF means "God, Time, or Fate" -- whatever "unknown
   force" is leaping Sam around. BGU (coined by Warren J. Madden) stands
   for "Big Guy Upstairs", and depending on context, that either means
   GTF or Don Bellisario.
   
   PQL, IC, and WR refer to "Project Quantum Leap," "Imaging Chamber,"
   and "Waiting Room" respectively, but that's pretty straightforward.
   The symbol **" is no longer in so much use but refers to the ascii
   representation (courtesy of Deb Brown) of the ASL symbols for "Quantum
   Leap" as shown in the episode "Private Dancer." [Kwong]
   
   Some more abbreviations that are commonly used, usually referring to
   specific episodes that, for one reason or another, get mentioned more
   frequently than others:
     * MI = "Mirror Image"
     * THL = "The Leap Home"
     * LHO = "Lee Harvey Oswald"
     * TLB = "The Leap Back"
       
   
   
  36. WHAT'S THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE WORD "HEIGHT"?
  
   This was mentioned on E!'s Behind the Scenes on QL as being an
   in-joke among the QL cast and crew: whenever the word "height" is
   mentioned, all those within earshot repeat it. [Kwong]
   
   This joke shows up occasionally on QL-related posts on the net,
   usually resulting in waste of bandwidth as others reply to the joke.
   Not that it isn't fun, but please, if you're tempted to follow up a
   posted "height!" with one of your own, consider the chain reaction you
   may be initiating/perpetrating. [Kwong] 
   
  37. WHAT MEMBERS OF THE QL STAFF AND CREW HAVE APPEARED IN THE SHOW?
  
   
     * Deborah Pratt as Troian Giovanni Claridge in "Portrait for Troian"
     * Don P. Bellisario as Timothy Mintz/mirror in "Portrait for Troian"
     * Paul Brown as Julian Claridge in "Portrait for Troian"
     * Don P. Bellisario as guy at the bar in "Mirror Image"
     * Jean-Pierre Dorleac as guy who says "Butcher, baker..." in "Shock
       Theater"
     * Rob Mendel as hippie guy in "M.I.A."
     * Chris Ruppenthal as Joshua Raye/mirror in "The B**gieman"
     * Harker Wade as Dylan Powell/mirror in "Temptation Eyes"
     * James Whitmore, Jr as Clayton Fuller/mirror in "Trilogy Part I"
       and as police captain in "Mirror Image" and as Bob Crockett in "8
       1/2 Months"
       
   
   
   [Ailsa Jenkins] 
   
  38. WASN'T THE GUY WHO PLAYED AL THE BARTENDER IN THE LAST EPISODE THE SAME
  ACTOR WHO PLAYED WEIRD ERNIE IN THE FIRST EPISODE?
  
   Yes, that was indeed Bruce McGill who played both parts. It is
   interesting that his part in "Genesis" was not alluded to in "Mirror
   Image" as were many of the other recurring characters. Bruce McGill
   also appeared in several episodes of another Belliario production,
   "Tales of the Gold Monkey". [Bellucci]
   
   Other guest stars have also played recurring characters or multiple
   roles. [Kwong] 
   
  39. WHAT'S THE LATEST INFORMATION ON SCOTT, DEAN, AND QL?

   New information as of June, 1995:

   The latest QL novel from Ace, "Pulitzer" by L. Elizabeth Storm,
   is currently available in bookstores. "Quantum Leap: From A to
   Z" by Julie Barrett is set to be released around Labor Day. 
   "Double or Nothing" by C. J. Henderson, the ninth novel, is
   scheduled for early November; "Odyssey" by Barbara E. Walton is
   scheduled for February 1996. [Kwong]
  
   The following information is forwarded (with permission) from the
   Project Quantum Leap newsletter (see the list of newsletters/zines/
   clubs in the ql-archive for more info). This info is current as of
   December, 1994. [Kwong]
   
   Project Quantum Leap will be organizing a pro-movie letter writing
   campaign. At this time, it is scheduled for the third week of January.
   Address and more info on a later update.
   
   Dean has finished work on MADDONNA:UNAUTHORIZED. This is to be shown
   on Fox sometime during the November sweeps. (This aired on Nov. 29,
   1994. [Kwong])
   
   THE LANGOLIERS will probably air during February sweeps.
   
   Scott has wrapped LORD OF ILLUSIONS, the new Clive Barker film. It is
   currently set to release on February 17th. Scott then immediately
   taped two MURPHY BROWN episodes, which have already aired. Four more
   are to follow this season. A PASSION TO KILL (formerly known as RULES
   OF OBSESSION) opened in LA and New York only. Leapers said it was
   better than reviews indidcated. It should be available on video on
   January 4th. BRIDGES/MI FAMILIA/MY FAMILY (no certain title yet) is
   scheduled for release in March. Scott is also still working on the
   animated feature film CATS DON'T DANCE. NOWEHERE TO HIDE aired October
   9th. Reviews were generally positive, with critics impressed with
   Scott's performance. Scott was also seen in the new Carol Burnett
   special MEN, MOVIES, AND CAROL which aired Oct. 24th. Reviews were
   great although some critics seemed surprised that Scott can sing and
   dance (where have THEY been?). If that doesn't seem like enough work,
   Scott's Production Company, Bakula Productions, is co-producing a play
   in NY. It is titled THE COVER OF LIFE. Reviews have been favorable. It
   is at the American Place Theater, 111 W. 46th St.
   
   FANGORIA magazine is doing a series on LORD OF ILLUSIONS. The
   October/November issue of LADIES GALLERY has a feature on Jean- Pierre
   Dorleac and his QL costumes.
   
   Finally, in case word has not filtered through, DENNIS WOLFBERG
   (Gooshie) died of skin cancer on October 3rd. He leaves three young
   sons behind. Two funds have been established in his honor. If you'd
   like to contribute to either, the addresses are: Wolfberg Children's
   Fund, 15456 Ventura Blvd., Suite 300, Sherman Oaks CA 91403 and the
   Dennis Wolfberg Melanoma/Gene Therapy Fund, c/o/ UCLA JOhnson Cancer
   Center Foundation, 9-667 Lewis Factor Bldg., 10833 Le Conte, Los
   Angeles CA 90024-1781. If you'd like to just send a condolence card to
   the family, the address is Jeannie Wolfberg, c/o/ Shapiro/West, 141 El
   Camino Dr., Suite 205, Beverly Hills CA 90212.
   
   The above info (except where noted) was forwarded by Ava Webster, from
   the PQL newsletter. The info below is from PQL's Margaret Colchin.
   [Kwong]
   
   A Passion to Kill will definitely be available at VIDEO RENTAL STORES
   on Jan. 4. It can be ordered from video dealers at a price of $92.95,
   or $145 for two copies. It will be available for mass consumer sales
   in 9-12 months.
   
   Bridges/Mi Familia/My Family will be released domestically as My
   Family in early 1995. (Scott has a role in this. [Kwong])
   
   The home video of Color of Night will be available in video rental
   stores in early 1995, probably in January. Firm date available in
   about 2 weeks.
   
   The Cover of Life closed on Nov. 20, but every Leaper who saw the play
   said it was excellent.
   
   The January issue of Fangoria is now in stores, and has a great
   picture of Scott. Further, Vol. 26, #3 of Cinefantastique will have a
   picture of Scott from LOI, and Starlog #212 is also scheduled to have
   an interview and picture of Scott. 

  40. ARE THERE QUANTUM LEAP CONVENTIONS?
  
   The first annual Quantum Leap convention was held in CA over Leap
   weekend, February 1992, along with Dean Stockwell's star ceremony
   (Hollywood Walk of Fame). The Con has been held at around the same
   time each year since then. Dean and Scott have shown up (officially
   and unofficially) so far each time. [Kwong]
   
   LeapCon '96 will be the latest in this series. For more
   information, send a SASE to LeapCon '96, P.O. Box 16495, North
   Hollywood, CA  91615-6495. [Kwong]

   EastLeap '95 is scheduled for October 20-22, in Essington, PA.
   For more info, write P.O. Box 86, Lake Hopatcong, NJ  07849 or
   send e-mail to r.calkins@genie.geis.com. [Kwong]

   I have also heard IndyLeap mentioned in passing; any further
   information would be appreciated. [Kwong]
   
  41. WHO DO I WRITE TO GET A QUANTUM LEAP MOVIE? AND HOW CAN I WRITE TO THE
  CAST AND CREW NOW?
  
   That's two questions again, but they're good ones. :-)
   
   For "Quantum Leap: The Movie", write to:
   
   Mr. Sid Sheinberg
   100 Universal City Plaza
   Universal City, CA 91608
   
   Don Bellisario is working at Paramount Pictures now. His address there
   is:
   
   Donald P. Bellisario
   Paramount Pictures
   5555 Melrose Ave.
   Los Angeles, CA 90038
   
   As for Scott, his address is:
   
        Scott Bakula
        14431 Ventura Blvd., Suite 320
        Sherman Oaks, CA  91423

   You can send letters, pix to be signed, and whatever else you want to 
   send to Scott to the above address.
   
  42. HOW LONG DID QL ORIGINALLY RUN?
  
   QL ran from March 26, 1989 to May 5, 1993, on NBC...for five seasons
   and a total of 95 episodes. [Kwong]

   Seasons one and two had a different saga cell from that of
   seasons three, four, and five; season five had a different
   opening theme. In syndication, episodes from season one through
   four are shown with the fourth-season saga cell and theme; 
   episodes from season five are shown with the fifth-season saga
   cell and fourth-season theme. [Kwong]

  43.  IS THERE REALLY AN ELK RIDGE, INDIANA?

   Not anymore, but the present day town of West Lafayette, Indiana was
   known as Elk Ridge until 1922, when it changed its name.  Today it is
   the home of Perdue University. [Finifter]

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